Ostomy - A surgical procedure in which an artificial opening is formed for the purpose of eliminating waste (stool/urine). An ostomy procedure may be performed to correct a congenital disorder, relieve an obstruction, or permit treatment of a severe disease or injury of the urinary or intestinal tract.

Stoma - A surgically created opening that can be temporary or permanent. The word "stoma" is derived from the Greek word meaning "mouth" or "opening." The stoma is made from a piece of the intestines and, therefore, it appears moist, dark pink or red and is not sterile. Although it is similar to the tissue that lines the inside of the mouth, the stoma has no pain or other sensations because it has no nerve endings.

Cecostomy - A surgical creation of an artificial opening into the cecum performed as a temporary measure to relieve intestinal obstruction in a patient who cannot tolerate major surgery.

Colostomy - A surgical opening from the large bowel (colon) to the abdomen, forming a stoma for the discharge of stool (fecal material). Colostomies may be temporary or permanent.

Continent Ileostomy (Kock Pouch) - In this surgical variation of the ileostomy, a reservoir pouch is created inside the abdomen with a portion of the terminal ileum. A valve is constructed in the pouch and a stoma is brought through the abdominal wall. A catheter or tube is inserted into the pouch several times a day to drain feces from the reservoir.

Continent Urostomy - An internal reservoir (or pouch) surgically created that acts as an artificial bladder to store urine after dysfunction or removal of bladder. The urine is emptied from the pouch through a small opening (stoma) that is usually sited on the lower abdomen and a flexible tube (catheter) is inserted to drain the urine. The Continent Urostomy may be referred to as Kock Urostomy or Indiana Pouch. External appliances are not required.

Duodenostomy - A surgical creation of an artificial opening into the duodenum through the abdominal wall. May be for the purpose of introducing a tube for post-pyloric feeding.

Esophagostomy - An artificial opening into the esophagus for enteral tube feeding.

Ileostomy - A surgically created opening in the small intestine, usually at the end of the ileum. The intestine is brought through the abdominal wall to form a stoma for the discharge of stool (fecal material). Ileostomies may be temporary or permanent.

Jejunostomy - A surgical creation of an artificial opening of a loop of the jejunum onto the surface of the abdominal wall either partially or completely bypassing the remainder of the intestine and colon.

Mitrofanoff Appendicovesicostomy - A surgical procedure in which the appendix is used to create a conduit between the skin surface and the urinary bladder. . A catheter or tube is inserted several times daily to drain urine from the reservoir.

Nephrostomy - An artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows for the urinary diversion directly from the upper part of the urinary system.

Ureterostomy - A surgical procedure in which a stoma is formed for a ureter or kidney. The procedure is performed to divert the flow of urine away from the bladder when the bladder is not functioning or has been removed.

Urostomy - A surgically constructed method of bypassing a dysfunctional or removed bladder in order to discharge urine. Most commonly a conduit is surgically created from a section of ileum, and the ureters are connected to it. The open end of the conduit (ileal conduit) is brought to the surface of the abdominal wall to form a stoma for the discharge of urine.

J-Pouch - Is when the large intestine or colon and most of the rectum are surgically removed and an internal pouch is formed out of the terminal portion of the ileum. An opening at the bottom of this pouch is attached to the anus such that the existing anal sphincter muscles can be used for continence. In addition to the "J" pouch, there are "S" and "W" pouch geometric variants.

Pouching Systems - Pouching systems may include a one-piece or two-piece system. Both kinds include a skin barrier/wafer and a collection pouch. The pouch (one-piece or two-piece) attaches to the abdomen by the skin barrier and is fitted over and around the stoma to collect the diverted output, either stool or urine. The barrier/wafer is designed to protect the skin from the stoma output and to be as neutral to the skin as possible.

One-Piece System - Consists of a skin barrier/wafer and pouch joined together as a single unit. Provide greater simplicity than two-piece systems but require changing the entire unit, including skin barrier, when the pouch is changed. A one-piece system can be either drainable or closed.

Two-Piece System - Allows changing pouches while leaving the barrier/wafer attached to the skin. The wafer/barrier is part of a "flange" unit. The pouches include a closing ring that attaches mechanically to a mating piece on the flange. A common connection mechanism consists of a pressure fit snap ring, similar to that used in Tupperware. A two-piece system can be either drainable or closed.

Irrigation - Is a procedure that flushes the colon with water by using a tube that is inserted into the stoma which causes the colon to empty and pass stool through the stoma into a pouch. Irrigation is only suitable for persons with sigmoid or descending colostomy and should only be undertaken after consultation with physician or ET.